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Top Web Development Stack In 2021: Front-end, Backend & Database

  Apr 15, 2021   JavaScript Amit Khirale
web development tech stack

The main strides to take with regards to building up an effective digital software product is to pick the correct tech stack. Why? Since making a software product isn't just about planning a pleasant UI and helpful UX; it's likewise about planning a steady, secure, and viable item that won't just win your client's heart however, will likewise permit you to scale your business. This is where choosing the right technology may help.


While you, as an entrepreneur, are occupied with things like elaborating your business thought, characterizing your product’s evaluating model, and thinking of incredible advertising, settling on technology for your new application is something you'll probably leave to your designers. 

Obviously, it's a basic practice to depend on your development partner’s innovation ideas. If you do, you should ensure that your partner understands your business needs and considers every one of the significant highlights you'll be carrying out for picking a technology stack.


While there are tons of accessible alternatives, a couple of them are ideal for a diverse scope of web development projects. Regardless of whether it's an eCommerce stage, an entertainment application, a medical services site, an social media application, or whatever else, the chosen tech stack should permit helpful dedicated development to the software engineer's team. 

However, do you realize what precisely comprises a top technology stack for web applications? Exploring it will assist you with dissecting fundamental features and components in a tech stack and how to choose your most ideal choice. 

What is a Web Development Technology Stack?


The technology stack is the system behind the smooth-running website or web application you are pursuing to read this article. It establishes both the body (code) and soul (execution) of the web applications development. In this way, while building up a programming project, a huge focus is given on the tech stacks. In simple language, the technology stack consolidates all the programming languages, libraries, structures, tools, software, etc. vital for the dedicated development of a smooth-running site, web application, and so on. Technology stack is also known as a Solution stack, Technology infrastructure, and Data Ecosystem.

web development tech stack


The technology / solutions stack is divided into three major components:

  • Front-end or Client-Side Technology Stack 
  • Back-end or Server-Side Technology Stack
  • Databases

Front-End, Client-Side Technology Stack

A web application has two primary sides. One is available to the client and is accountable for the UI, while the other is liable for the client's experience.

The side which is open to the client and exploited by him/her to communicate with the application establishes the front end. The front-end technology stack principally comprises HTML, CSS, Java, and so forth.

Tools used for frontend web improvement

HTML

(Hypertext Markup Language) is a programming language utilized for portraying the construction of data introduced on a page. It utilizes the most recent rendition of HTML — HTML5 — which has new components and qualities for making web applications all the more effectively and viably. The fundamental benefit that HTML5 is that it has sound and video support, which was excluded from past variants of HTML. 

CSS

(Cascading Style Sheets) is a template language that portrays the look and design of a document written in HTML. CSS is utilized for explaining text and insert labels in styled electronic documents.

JavaScript

(or essentially JS) is the third primary technology for building the frontend of a web application. JavaScript is regularly utilized for making dynamic and intuitive site pages. It empowers basic and complex web animations, which significantly add to a positive client experience. Javascript strives to make easy-to-understand applications for addition on this subject. 

Back-End, Server-Side Technology Stack

The working of the application dependent on the client association is primarily the back end or server-side. It isn't available to the client, and the technology answerable for creating it is known as the back-end technology stack. Programming languages,libraries, structures, servers, data set administration frameworks, and so forth, are the huge parts of back-end tech stacks.  

The backend stack incorporates these components:

Programming languages – This makes logic for applications and sites. The codes interface the web to a data set. A few models are JavaScript, PHP, and Python.

Frameworks – it offers help for applications dependent on a single programming language. Laravel, Django, and Ruby on Rails are many of the well-known systems.

Web Servers – You need backend servers to oversee customer demands. Apache, Nginx, and Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) are extraordinary instances of web servers.

Databases

A database is a coordinated collection of organized data or information, normally put away electronically in a PC framework. A database is normally constrained by a database management system (DBMS). Together, the information and the DBMS, with the applications that are related to them, are called database frameworks, frequently referred to as 'databases'.

Types of Databases:

  • NoSQL databases- A NoSQL, or non-relational database, permits unstructured and semistructured information to be stored and manipulated which makes it a popular web application.
  • Cloud database- A cloud database is an assortment of information, either organized or unstructured, that lives on a private, public, or mixture distributed computing stage. There are two sorts of cloud data set models: traditional and database as a service(DBaaS).
  • Data warehouses- A focal vault for information, it is a sort of data set explicitly intended for quick questions and examination.
  • Object-oriented databases- Data in this type of database is addressed as items, as in object-oriented programming.
  • Relational database- Relational databases are a coordinated bunch of tables with segments and lines giving the most productive and adaptable approach to access organized data.

By the time you have gotten familiar with the idea of a technology stack with regards to web application development. it's an ideal opportunity to review how to choose technology for web development before picking a stack for your project. The decision should under no circumstances be made on the spot since it would have essential outcomes in regards to the required time, assets, and HR, just as an ultimate result of the development. Settling on a decision of a web technology stack is the cycle that requires intensive thought consideration on different variables. In this article, we chalk out some of the top web technology stacks in 2021 that will make it easier for you to decide based on your tech requirements. 

Top Frontend Web Development Technology Stack in 2021

React

ReactJS is a JavaScript library that joins the speed of JavaScript and utilizes another method of delivering website pages, making them profoundly unique and receptive to client input. The item fundamentally changed the Facebook way to deal with development. After the library was delivered, it turned out to be amazingly popular because of its progressive way to deal with programming UIs setting the long-going Comparison Between Angular vs React vs Vue, other popular web development tools.

Today, ReactJS is a highly utilized open-source web-based technology. It helps in making impressive web applications that require minimal exertion and coding. The primary goal of ReactJS is to create User Interfaces (UI) that improves the speed of the applications. There are significant advantages and disadvantages of ReactJS given as follows. 

Pros:

  • Easy to Learn and USe
  • The Benefit of Having JavaScript Library
  • Reusable Components
  • Creating Dynamic Web Applications Becomes Easier
  • Performance Enhancement
  • Open-source community
  • Known to be SEO Friendly
  • The Support of Handy Tools
  • Scope for Testing the Codes

Cons:

  • The constant high pace of development
  • Poor documentation
  • Additional SEO hassle
  • JSX as a barrier

Read More: What is ReactJS: Introduction To React and Its Features

Angular

Angular is a frontend web application development framework dependent on TypeScript, worked by people at Google and vigorously added to by an enormous community of designers around the globe.  Angular is certainly one of the best technology for front end development. It is a Single Page Application (SPA) framework, which implies that Angular is able and is basically used to fabricate single page web applications or SPAs.  It was introduced by Google in 2009 and got warm recognition from the development community. 

As indicated by the 2019 Stack Overflow overview, 30.7 percent of computer programmers currently apply Angular to make UIs. Since the start of 2019, web application development with Angular has helped the community grow 50% compared to 2018, as expressed in NG-Conf 2019. The advanced Angular expects you to know about the Typescript language which is a severe linguistic superset of JavaScript and adds discretionary static typing and some different features to the language that in any case, JavaScript needs. 

Pros:

  • Developed and maintained by Google
  • Easy two-way data binding
  • Iterative development support
  • Easy to work with HTML templates
  • High-quality code
  • Dependency injection
  • Component-based architecture
  • Robust ecosystem
  • Large Community
  • High job demand

Cons:

  • Tedious and complex
  • High memory consumption
  • Hierarchical tree-like structure
  • Migration
  • Steep learning curve

VueJS:

Vue is going to be one of the top front-end technology stack for 2021. Not at all like Angular and React, Vue.js has a piece lower of an expectation to learn and adapt. If you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, Vue will be a lot simpler to get. It's a lot lighter without any numerous conditions and simple to execute either in little lumps as individual libraries or as a full-highlighted structure.

Vue.js is such a hybrid among heavier and bigger systems like Angular and React. If you have a current application, Vue is something pretty simple to coordinate right in without doing significant reworking or code refactoring. Actually, like any modern or cutting-edge front-end web framework, you'll get all the main features you need like data binding. In contrast to a portion of these bigger frameworks, there probably won't be as vigorous of features to work in.

Pros:

  • Virtual DOM rendering and performance
  • Small size
  • Integration capabilities and flexibility
  • Good Code readability
  • Efficient Component reusability
  • Solid tooling ecosystem
  • Reactive two-way data binding
  • Good for unit-testing
  • Concise documentation
  • Community support

Cons:

  • Reactivity complexity
  • Language barrier
  • Risk of over flexibility
  • Lack of experienced developers
  • Limited resources
  • Lack of support for large-scale projects

Svelte:

Svelte is the most recent of all frontend frameworks for web applications. The frameworks have had an effect by placing the work into a compile step as opposed to placing them in the program, not at all like frameworks like React and Vue. It composes the code to refresh the document object model in synchronization with the condition of the application.

The system is appropriate for little application projects and with a little group. Since it doesn't have a greater community, it is better not to utilize it for complex tasks and bigger organizational projects. This is also because the systems need enough tooling and community. It is hard to find responses to the inquiries/bugs that may show up later in the development stage because of the small community.

Pros:

  • Faster than any other framework like Angular or React
  • Lightweight and simple
  • Uses the existing javascript libraries
  • Latest of all frameworks
  • Better reactivity
  • Scalable framework 

Cons:

  • Lack of tooling
  • Lack of support
  • Relatively small community
  • Not very popular yet
  • Lack of proper documentation

Meteor

MeteorJS, is a free and open-source JavaScript web framework composed using Node.js. It is mostly used for creating responsive web apps, which comes packaged with access to the collection of thousands of helpful libraries and bundles to make the development process simpler and quicker. It assists with the quick creation of refined models and permits building full-grown applications out of them in an adaptable way. Meteor is popularly used as a great accentuating tech stack for web application projects. it provides you with a data management solution between the server and the client.

Pros:

  • Impressive community
  • Cross-Platform Support
  • Iron router
  • Support for different templating engines
  • Hot reload
  • An abundance of Packages and Libraries
  • Seamless Client-Server Communication
  • Real-time Testing Tool
  • Latency compensation
  • Server Side debug
  • Native Widget Library
  • Inbuilt Support for PWA
  • Network Connection Flexibility

Cons:

  • No reactive joins
  • No native server-side rendering
  • No deployment to own server
  • Lack of control mechanism
  • potential scaling problems with large apps

Top Backend Technology Stack in 2021

Node.js

Node.js web development framework is one of the core foundations of numerous other well-known frameworks like React, Angular, and few others. It is certainly the best technology for backend development. Giving fundamental devices like NPM this JavaScript runtime gives devices to fabricate asynchronous event-driven applications that are adaptable. This backend web development framework is broadly embraced and has enormous help now, making it probably the best system for web advancement. 

JavaScript is unquestionably the easiest decision and development as a development solution as the expectation to learn and adapt to some of the other solutions increases. As a result of this pattern, Node.js is solidified as perhaps the best frame for web development and is sure to stay. 

Pros:

  • Easy to learn
  • Easy scalability
  • Single Programming Language
  • regarded as a full-stack JavaScript
  • Support of Large and Active Community
  • Handles the Requests Simultaneously
  • Helps in building Cross-functional Teams
  • Reduces Loading Time by Quick Caching
  • Extensibility to Meet Customized Requirements
  • Offering High Performance
  • Advantage of Caching
  • Support for commonly Used Tools
  • Highly Extensible
  • Freedom to Develop Apps

Cons:

  • Unstable API
  • Asynchronous Programming Model
  • High demand with a few Experienced Node.js Developers
  • Heavy Computing Tasks
  • Reduces performance 
  • Lack of Library Support

Laravel 

Laravel web application tech stack is promoted as an expressive framework with a rich syntax. It has an extraordinary environment of various toolsets that permit you to rapidly and effectively construct solutions using PHP. The genuine appeal here is how much the environment gives.

From cross-platform development environments to devices to consider simple and easy debugging has made it the best tech stack to build websites. Membership billing, application scaling, zero downtime organizations, OAuth2 execution, all that you'd figure an advanced site should have, is implicit natively with Laravel. This is an incredible alternative for the PHP ecosystem and one that will provide tons of significant worth. 

Pros:

  • Great documentation
  • Faster Development Cycle
  • Supporting Prominent Cache Backends
  • Reverse Routing
  • Integrates with Mail Services
  • Queue Management
  • IoC Container
  • Abundance of Packages and Resources
  • Eloquent ORM
  • Easy authentication
  • Artisan – Laravel’s dedicated tool
  • Configuration error and exception handling
  • Automatic testing
  • Active Record Implementation

Cons:

  • Lack of Inbuilt Support
  • Might Seem Complex at first
  • Quality is mixed at times
  • The Composer is not strong enough
  • Issues with certain upgrades
  • Lack of continuation between versions

Express

This web app technology stack gives a powerful middleware system to Node. js-based applications. With an emphasis on execution, Express gives the fundamentals of web applications API advancement without getting excessively muddled or obscuring features unnecessarily.

Since Express is based on Node.js, there are numerous mainstream frameworks that are worked off of and use it. Express has an incredible arrangement of documentation, instructional exercises, and a lot of models you can discover on the website. It gives every one of the fundamentals you need like error handling, directing, troubleshooting, and information based integrations. For Node.js applications, this is perhaps the best system for web development and probably the best framework to build web applications. 

Pros:

  • Fast app development 
  • Real-time apps
  • I/O request handling 
  • Open-source community 
  • Easy to learn 
  • Easy integration of third-party services and middleware 
  • Expected Performance Boos
  • Apps to track website visits

Cons:

  • Event-driven nature
  • Complex Code organization 
  • Philosophy of plugins known as middleware 
  • minimalism inherent to Express

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails has an extraordinary name. It suggests it's quick and simple. This is all obvious. GitHub, Shopify, Airbnb, Twitch, SoundCloud, Hulu. The rundown goes on of well known and recognizable sites that are fabricated utilizing Ruby on Rails. Ruby on Rails is open-source programming that makes it free to use. Due to its prominence, there is a tremendous measure of support for it which makes it the best technology for backend development. They are optimized for programmer happiness and are very different from other web application systems.

Ruby on Rails gives a ton of extraordinary usefulness for rapidly working out the platform of your project. From making models, interfaces, data set associations, and significantly more. Ruby on Rails doesn't have overall similar features of a full and vigorous structure like Angular, React, or even Vue, so you will wind up blending in different things for the front end development. Ruby on Rails while quick to assemble can be delayed in execution for bigger scope applications and isn't as enhanced for multithreading. 

Pros:

  • Helpful tools and libraries.
  • Time efficiency
  • Huge and active community
  • makes the language much easier for novices
  • better code readability
  • minimizes the amount of code 
  • Strong adherence to standards

Cons:

  • Continuous evolvement
  • Shortage of flexibility
  • Price of a mistake
  • Performance time

ASP.NET

First delivered in 2016, ASP.NET Core is an open-source variant of ASP.NET. It is an upgrade of the prior Windows-only versions of ASP.NET. A popular web development framework for making web applications on the .NET stage, ASP.NET Core is a lot quicker than most currently accessible frameworks. It can well be operated on macOS, Docker, Linux, as well as windows and they, provide various support lifecycle options for meeting specific requirements.

Pros:

  • Delivers power and flexibility
  • It allows for separation of concern
  • Consists of some of the out-of-the-box features
  • Customizability and Extensibility
  • Simplicity
  • Consists of some of the out-of-the-box features
  • Reduces coding time
  • Security
  • The benefit of continuous monitoring
  • Manageability
  • Cross-platform migration

Cons:

  • No proper Documentation 
  • Making changes in the app
  • ASP.NET core not good enough
  • Porting ASP application is expensive

Python

Python is a high-level, well-interpreted, and dynamic top web development language that centers around code readability. The syntax in Python assists the developers with doing coding in fewer steps when contrasted with Java or C++. The language established in the year 1991 by the engineer Guido Van Rossum has made the programming simple and enjoyable to write. Python is broadly utilized in bigger organizations for its different programming models. It has a large and comprehensive standard library that has an automated program management system.

Most of the software development companies favor the Python language because of its adaptable features and fewer programming codes. Software engineers of large organizations use Python as it has made an imprint for itself in software development with dynamic characteristics.

Pros:

  • Improved programmer’s productivity.
  • Extensive support libraries.
  • Easy to read, learn and write
  • Improved productivity
  • Strong process integration features.
  • enhanced control capabilities
  • object-oriented designs and modules
  • Impressive web service tools

Cons:

  • Difficulty in Using Other Languages
  • Gets Slow in Speed
  • Underdeveloped database access layers
  • Run-time errors
  • Weak in mobile computing
  • Not memory efficient

Databases

MongoDB

MongoDB is one of the most popular NoSQL databases that stores information in BSON. SON is a parallel encoding JSON that stores information in key-esteem sets. Working with MongoDB NoSQL database is a lot simpler than working with any relational database. There are no tables in MongoDB. All the information is put away in JSON format, i.e. key-esteem sets. In JSON, we characterize a one-of-a-kind key with a value related to it. These key-esteem sets are put away in an archive, which thus is put away in a collection. A collection in MongoDB can have quite a few records and such archives can have quite a few key-esteem sets.

Pros:

  • MongoDB is free to use.
  • Does Not require mapping of application objects.
  • easy to store arrays and objects.
  • uses internal memory for storage
  • easy to set-up and install
  • schema-less NoSQL database
  • No complex joins are needed 

Cons:

  • No transaction support
  • Limit for document size
  • Uses high memory for data storage.

AWS

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a Cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (cloud IaaS) stage that gives computing power, information stockpiling, and other IT solutions and utilities for organizations. Released in 2006, AWS has become quite possibly the most well-known cloud stage available. Using AWS, Amazon has made it feasible for organizations to dispose of the need to assemble and look after private, on-premise frameworks. All things considered, clients just compensate for what they need, making a more adaptable model without the management overhead for facilitating a similar architecture on site.

Regarding security, AWS is supposed to be safer than an organization facilitating its own site or information. With server farms across the globe that are persistently checked and rigorously kept up, clients are guaranteed that a catastrophe striking one area doesn't cause a permanent data loss around the world.

Pros:

  • Provides Speed and Agility
  • No Capacity Limits
  • Easy to Use
  • Secure and Reliable
  • Highest standard of security
  • Elastic Load Balancing 
  • Auto Scaling
  • Flexible
  • Helps to protect the privacy
  • Scales with your AWS cloud usage

Cons:

  • Security limitations
  • Additional Technical Support Fee
  • Limitations OF Amazon EC2
  • General Cloud Computing Issues

Firebase

Firebase is a software development platform released in 2011 by Firebase inc and procured by Google in 2014. Started as a real-time data set, presently it has 18 services (4 of them as of now in beta), and committed APIs. The entire stage is a Backend-as-a-Service solution both for mobile and online applications that incorporates services for building, testing, and managing applications.

BaaS solutions let you dispose of the need in managing backend databases and getting comparing equipment. All things being equal, you can plug them into your application by devoted APIs for each different help. On account of Firebase, there are 7 of them that cover all the range of back-end technologies for an application. The list of stages Firebase coordinates incorporates Android, iOS, Web, and Unity.

Pros:

  • Excellent Database capabilities
  • Free installation
  • Static hosting capabilities
  • Concise documentation
  • Accessible UI and ease of integration
  • Wide number of services
  • Better firebase analytics
  • Firebase testing services
  • Serverless applications
  • Machine learning capabilities

Cons:

  • Less support for iOS apps
  • Vendor lock-in issue
  • Firebase Realtime Database limitations

Redis

Redis is an open-source (BSD authorized), in-memory information structure store, utilized as a database, reserve, and message agent. It upholds information constructions like strings, hashes, records, sets, arranged sets with bitmaps, range questions, geospatial files with streams, and radius inquiries.

It supports caching that is the way toward putting away some information in Cache. It is a transitory stockpiling part territory where the temporary information is put away so that later on, information can be served quicker. For that case, Redis is utilized. Redis supports most driving programming language and conventions, including Python, Java, PHP, Perl, Go, Ruby, C/C#/C++, JavaScript, Node.js, and some more.

Pros:

  • Allows storing key and value pairs 
  • Uses its own hashing mechanism
  • Offers data replication
  • Has clients in all the popular programming languages
  • Can withstand failures and provide uninterrupted service
  • Allows inserting huge amounts of data
  • Simple to implement the protocol
  • Support transactions

Cons:

  • Requires a huge ram
  • Cluster topology, causing overhead configuration

Elasticsearch

This document-based data and recovery device is customized to putting away and quickly recovering data. Elasticsearch ought to be utilized for working with the client experience with quicker query items. Elasticsearch is extremely steady. It brings a ton to cut down a cluster. Its self-adjusting calculations, pioneer political decision framework, self-recuperating properties are best in class. There are hardly any network disappointments or hard-drive corruption or CPU bugs cut down an ES group.

Elasticsearch's flexible data model is unmatched. You can settle fields as profoundly as you need, have however many fields as you need, yet anything you desire in those fields (as long as it remains a similar kind), and every last bit of it will be accessible and you don't have to try and proclaim a schema beforehand!

Pros:

  • Log storage efficiency 
  • Dashboards are easy to manipulate
  • Fast and efficient.
  • Stable and Open-source database
  • Complete package
  • Fast Search through millions of data
  • Full-text search
  • search results are accurate
  • great documentation.

Cons:

  • Performance issues 
  • steep learning curve
  • Encryption at rest.
  • Forums are very full but misleading.
  • New updates are difficult to adopt
  • Difficult to understand query language

Web development stacks summary

The web app technology stacks are some of the best ones to be used in 2021 for your next project. Having said that, picking the correct technology stack is challenging and hugely affects how effective your application will be. Pick one based on your financial plan and the requirements of your task. It would also be valuable if you could pick technology dependent on the skill of your team. The correct stack will permit you to make updates as a need in the future. It should also promote business development for you. The maintenance cost also works as an important factor.  Utilizing cloud-based Solutions and ready-made solutions assists you with lessening expenses and speed up development. Get in touch with the top web app development company to have a clear objective before you pick your technology stack. 

Read More: 16 Top Mobile App Development Frameworks In 2021

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